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Goal/ Purpose

The Devil’s Advocate method helps learners handle counter-arguments to their own position. This requires them to consciously change their perspective so that new positions can be discovered, critically examined, and tested. The goal of this method is also to motivate learners to engage more deeply with a subject. It can also be used as a warm-up exercise before working on a subject or event, as well as in the evaluation phase of an idea to show its advantages and disadvantages.

Duration

This method can be used as a warm-up activity, in an evaluation phase or during a whole seminar session, 30-90 min, depending on the subject matter.

Material

No specific material needed.

Description

Individual learners or small groups take the role of the so-called ‘devil’s advocate’, an opposing standpoint that is by design expressly critical of the idea or opinion being discussed. A devil’s advocate gathers counter-arguments and attempts to persuade the other participants in the exercise. This exercise promotes an intensive and controversial discussion of ideas. Moreover, by acting out other positions, learners often find it easier to raise topics that they might otherwise be unwilling to talk about. After the exercise, learners discuss how persuasive each argument was.

https://erwachsenenbildung.at/aktuell/nachrichten/7242-advocatus-diaboli-durch-kontroverse-argumentation-ueberzeugen.php

Purpose/goal

Seeing the relationship between language teaching and entrepreneurial education
Teaching language in an entrepreneurial way

Duration

Workshop of 2 hours

Material

Concrete materials such as lego blocks, vegetables and fruit, bathroom products, work utensils and socks

Description

In this workshop students design an entrepreneurial lesson for primary school children.

In order to start this workshop it is important that students already have a basis of didactics and teaching experience.
The workshop starts with a short explanation about entrepreneurship in education. We strongly emphasize the breadth of the subject because entrepreneurship is often only associated with setting up a business, accounting, profit and loss.

Next, students in small groups are given the assignment to work out an entrepreneurial lesson on the basis of concrete material. We give students two materials that at first sight do not seem to have too much to do with each other. The purpose of this is precisely to challenge them to think creatively.

After this first design, we ask them to present their design to another group. The group that listens identifies the business opportunities they have heard and seen in the design. The presenting group complements unnoticed opportunities.

Afterwards, each group gets an additional assignment to look at. They have to look at the language development opportunities in their design. If they are not yet enterprising, they are also asked to make them enterprising. In this way we want students to experience that entrepreneurial teaching is not the same as project teaching. When carrying out a project you indeed have a lot of opportunities to work on the entrepreneurial skills, but also within individual lessons we can make enterprising and in all lessons there is language.

Goal/ purpose

Practice the first steps of design thinking: empathize, define, ideate and prototype
During a hackathon, participants have to solve a problem - a case - in a short time

Duration

24 to 36 hours

Material

Depends on the case (pen, paper, computer…)
A case, preferably from a professional

Description

The school, city or company present their case to the participants.

In what follows, students accept the challenge and try to find a good solution for the problem within the give time frame.

You prefer to invite a multidisciplinary group for a hackathon. In this way, you can have students from the teacher training course work together with students from other courses, but also with external participants. By working in multi-disciplinary groups you broaden everyone's perspective

During a hackathon it's all about cooperation. You all work in a pleasant, informal setting to find a good solution as quickly as possible. Teamwork, time pressure and the necessary relaxation ensure an inspiring event where everyone gets the most out of themselves. This provides an enormous boost of energy before, during and after the event. You will see that after the event you will continue to solve other cases full of energy and inspiration.

Students focus on the first three steps and if possible sketch a prototype of their solution. However, the emphasis is mainly on thinking up a solution rather than actually realizing it. That would be a nice bonus, but that is not the intention.

Success factors

Start from a well-developed case. The goal to be achieved must be very clear for each team. If not, solutions will be devised that nobody is waiting for.

Keep the case realistic and adapt it to the available time and space.

Provide different times when students can call on experts who have a good knowledge of the case. This way, students can not only empathize better at the start, but they can also question them if they get stuck in their process.

How did we use it at the AP college?

In our college, students from the Applied Computer Science and Electronics ICT course successfully took part in a hackaton.

Read more


Purpose/goal

To activate teachers' creativity to solve challenges

Duration

1,5- 2 hours

Material

bookcovers
volunteers

Description

It is an open book about life.
There are no paper books in the Human Library. You meet people of flesh and blood. People with an inspiring story or a poignant testimony. Their stories are about loss, success, illness, hope, recovery… Talking with a Human Book is not only a good remedy against prejudices and taboos, but also ideal to inspire and develop creative thinking.
How does it work?
At the beginning of each Human Library you get an overview of the Human Books present. You choose the story that appeals most to you and get to know the man or woman behind the story. Each conversation lasts 20 to 30 minutes. During this time you will have the opportunity to get to know the Human Book in a personal conversation, from person to person.
In The Human Library it is like a real library:

  • The Book is the person who wants to share his experiences.
  • The Borrower is the person who wants to borrow a 'book'.
  • The Catalogue is the collection of titles and short descriptions of each book, with keywords.
  • The Librarian is the administrator of The Human Library.
    Vlaamse Vereniging voor Geestelijke Gezondheid (VVGG) (Flemish Mental Health Association). (s.d.). The Human Library. Consulted from https://www.geestelijkgezondvlaanderen.be/de-levende-bibliotheek

How did we use it at the AP college?
Good education is one of the most important escape routes from deprivation. It is therefore important that our students gain insight into the complexity of this subject and are able to provide good education. In order to be able to set up a good education, it is important that students can come up with solutions for the obstacles they encounter. Poverty is one such obstacle. They have to be able to work in their school and classroom with few resources. In the past, we noticed that students often got stuck on the complexity of the problem.

The Human library not only helps them to grasp the complexity, but we also focus on the further development of our students' creative thinking so that they are able to come up with solutions with few resources and within a unique context. The Human books bring all students a unique story that not only inspires, but is also a starting point to find creative solutions for the problems they are confronted with in education.

Moreover, this form of work also enables them to test their actions or flourishing ideas against various experts.

Available in Dutch and English

How can trash be used to create new plants? To experience the potentials of trash in a new setting.

Purpose/goal

Trash used to create new potatoes- and tomatoes

Duration

15 lessons plus a growing season of 3 months

Materials

Old potatoes, overripe tomatoes, containers, plant soil, old boards, nails, hammers, saws.

Description

The students make germination boxes from old tins and take care of the germination of plants till they are ready to be replaced in plant containers made from trash wood. The students experiment with watering the plants and take care of them for 3 month or until they will be able to cook a nice soup from their own products. If they create a window in the container they can see, how potatoes develop.

Languages

Danish and English

Purpose/goal:

Learn how to transform themes from an exhibition into a teaching material. The purpose is to challenge the students to see opportunities and new ways of teaching by using innovative approaches.

Duration:

16 lessons

Materials:

Eksperimentarium (museum), every place and everything you can think of in order to develop a new teaching material.

Description:

Based on the visit at the Experimentarium or similar museum, you must choose one of the themes from the exhibition.

  1. Describe following exhibition and turn it into a teaching material for a chosen level of age (feel free to choose between all classes from 1st to 9th Grade)
  2. Describe your teaching material, which could be a task, game, treasure hunt, project etc. Explain how this material efforts entrepreneurial thinking, what parts of the entrepreneurial process is this material focusing on, what age group it is made for, what subjects could be implemented when using this material, how do you set goals,
    how will this material encourage the teaching differentiation and other didactical issues of interest. In other words you have to write a teacher’s guide to the material you have made!
  3. Make a lesson plan for specific subject(s) (choose what subject(s) you want to implement yourself). The teaching material you have made has to be implemented in the lesson plan. The lesson plan has to contain:
  • learning objects and goals (academic and/or social goals)
  • a specific key-stage-level
  • a specific theme
  • the teaching material you have made
  • description of the exercises
  • description of how the pupils are to work
  • description of how you would evaluate this lesson plan
  1. Explain how this lesson plan teaches entrepreneurial skills e.g. by making use of given theoretical background knowledge about Social Entrepreneurship
  2. Write 6-10 pages each group

Language:

Danish and english

Purpose/goal

Build your challenge without words! The purpose of this activity is to learn to collaborate without too many words.

Duration

30-60 minutes

Material

Spaghetti and marshmallows

Description

Are you planning a teaching material with an innovative approach or are you making a lesson plan with entrepreneurial thinking? Here you will have a chance to develop creativity and innovation and generate new ideas in a different way. You will learn to design and develop new educational products (resources) using a different kind of materials, in a very creative way and to reflect on the use of everyday material in you teaching.

Languages

Danish and English

Purpose/goal

The YEDAC - Young Entrepreneurs Developing in Action-  project is an EU-project focusing on developing young people’s entrepreneurial competences.

This project has developed models to integrate the entrepreneurial mindset into the subject matters and the daily teaching in European schools. The tools and models developed in the project have been tested by teachers and their pupils in schools all over Europe and used worldwide.

The workshops and activities provided in this toolkit could be integrated in Higher Education.

Specific goals related to the entrepreneurial learning process model:

Explore:

  • To explore together with your classmates and teacher, what an entrepreneur is, and what entrepreneurs do.
  • To assess your own entrepreneurial competences with the self-assessment tool.
  • To explore the theme you are going to work with.

Develop

  • To collaborate with teachers and partners to get as many ideas as possible.
  • To help each other pick the best idea.
  • To plan the working process – how to realize your idea.
  • To set individual learning goals for what you will learn in the process.
  • To develop and produce your product or service or solution.
  • To make a prototype and test it on a relevant target group.

Deliver

  • To present your product, service or solution for your classmates, teachers and maybe also to other partners.
  • To get an overview over what you have learned in the subject matters and how you have improved your entrepreneurial competences.

Duration

It depends on the workshops and/or activities you decide to implement. There are activities for minutes or modules to be developed during weeks

Material

Description

The book or toolkit is about entrepreneurship and learning. It is a guide to help people through the process of getting a good idea and putting it into action. In other words, it is like acting like an entrepreneur and at the same time explore the subject matters.

Entrepreneurship is considered by YEDAC as an attitude or an approach to life and learning. It means that you have the will and the ability to influence on your own future and take responsibility for your own life and activities.

In this book the reader will find tools and a guideline on how to act an learn in a new way, where the person contribute with ideas and interests and make important decisions on how to bring these ideas to life.

The book is based on the entrepreneurial learning process model that illustrates how learning activities can be organised.

The process consists of three main phases: explore, develop and deliver. These steps are divided into workshops. A workshop is an intensive learning activities with a specific activities: entrepreneurship; real world themes; development of ideas; planning; production; presentation and evaluation.

Language

English

Purpose/goal

General: To motivate teachers to act and develop new ideas to contribute to the entrepreneurial education.

Specific: Related to the 5 phases of the Design Thinking methodology.

  1. To empathize with the suggested problem.
  2. To interpret in a proper way the problem to be solved.
  3. To select ideas to answer the problem.
  4. To transform ideas into prototypes. 

Duration

The awareness programme is programmed to be carried out in a total of 5 sessions. In each session a block of the programme will be worked. Each block corresponds to each phase of Design Thinking.

The program is structured in 5 sessions of 2 hours of duration that will be carried out throughout 5 weeks every Wednesday afternoon after the end of the classes.

Material

Description

In order to carry out the activities in a dynamic way following the process of Design thinking, the programme will be carried out with a maximum of 30 people, who will work in small groups (6 people per group) with the exception of the activities of the last session which will be carried out all together.

Each teacher will be given a file where they will find the different readings for each block and the steps they must follow to carry out the different activities.

At the end of the programme, on the one hand, each participant will have to fill in a rubric in order to reflect on the learning they have acquired in each of the phases and, on the other hand, they will find a scale of assessment to evaluate whether they have personally developed the competences that characterise an entrepreneur or not.

Finally, teachers will be able to reflect and write suggestions about the entire process followed by them in order to make future improvements to the programme.

This programme has been produced by Ainhoa Ituño Martín (participant of EIPTE project) and Jon Hernández Fernández, both last year students of the Primary Education degree of the University of Deusto.

Language

Spanish.

Purpose/goal

  • To reflect on the design thinking methodology and about the use of that approach.
  • To analyze an example of how to redesign a course based on the design thinking approach.
  • To think upon the benefits of teaching and learning entrepreneurship through design thinking

Duration

Just reading the paper could take between 30 min and 1 hour.

This paper could be worked autonomously. The learner could read it and focused on different questions proposed by the lecturer to be answered by them before or after having worked in class the methodology known as design thinking.

There is not a fixed time as it depends on the number of questions proposed.

Material

See: https://innovation-entrepreneurship.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s13731-018-0098-z

Shortened URL: https://bit.ly/2DoRfcL

Description

Abstract

Background: Entrepreneurship has traditionally been taught from a business administration perspective, where predicting the future is central and where the world is seen as linear with known inputs and outputs. The world of entrepreneurs is a quite different, usually highly uncertain environment, and therefore requires a different type of skill set. In this paper, we conceptualize entrepreneurial learning through a method- and design-based approach and illustrate how a course can be developed and designed.

Findings: In this paper it is argued that by utilizing design thinking and a methods approach, learning from a “through” approach can be achieved. This learning is more focused on the entrepreneurial process, highlighting the role of skills and mindset. This learning approach enables student-centered learning and focus on skills more applicable to entrepreneurs. It is also argued that the entrepreneurship process is not linear; therefore, creativity is central and finding structure is an unstructured process. Design thinking emphasizes a practical approach where students step outside the classroom. This experimentation and interaction in the real world of users and customers with real feedback is important in combination with reflection exercises.

Conclusions: This paper highlights how a methods approach and entrepreneurship education with a “through” perspective can be achieved by utilizing design thinking. This is elaborated conceptually and illustrated with an example. We argue that a methods approach for teaching entrepreneurship is beneficial, where design thinking can be one valuable tool and approach for teaching entrepreneurship.

Language(s)

English